The effects of thymoquinone on steroid-induced femoral head osteonecrosis: An experimental study in rats
AuthorDaşçı, Mustafa Fatih
Yaprak Saraç, Elif
Gök Yurttaş, Asiye
Güleç, Mehmet Akif
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CitationDaşçı, M. F., Yaprak Saraç, E., Gök Yurttaş, A., Atçı, T., Uslu, M., Acar, A. ... Alagöz, E. (2022). The effects of thymoquinone on steroid-induced femoral head osteonecrosis: An experimental study in rats. Joint Diseases and Related Surgery, 33(3), pp. 553-566. https://doi.org/10.52312/jdrs.2022.752
Objectives: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the antioxidant, antiapoptotic, osteoblastic and hypolipidemic effects of thymoquinone (TQ) treatment on the steroid-induced osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH) model in rats. Materials and methods: A total of 24 rats were randomly divided into four groups: the control group administered saline; the TQ group administered 10 mg/kg/day TQ orally; lipopolysaccharide/ methylprednisolone (LPS/MPS) group administered 20 μg/kg intraperitoneally LPS and 40 mg/kg intramuscularly MPS to establish ONFH model; and the LPS/MPS+TQ group administered both LPS/MPS and, then, TQ once daily for four weeks. All rats were sacrificed after intracardiac blood collection and their right femurs were removed. Results: Micro-computed tomography showed a higher bone mineral density and lower porosity, Tr.Sp and Tr.Sep data were detected in the LPS/MPS+TQ group. In histopathology, osteonecrosis increased significantly in the LPS/MPS group and osteonecrosis decreased in the LPS/MPS+TQ group compared to the LPS/MPS group (p=0.0077). Histomorphometric examination revealed that the percentage of BV/TV in the LPS/MPS group was significantly lower compared to control and other groups (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively), while it reached normal rates in the LPS/MPS+TQ group. Immunohistochemically, antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and angiogenesis indicators (8-hydroxy-20-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG], malondialdehyde [MDA], B-cell lymphoma [Bcl-2], caspase-3, vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]) were significantly improved in tissue and serum with TQ. Furthermore, TQ significantly reduced low and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and carboxy-terminal type 1 collagen crosslink (CTX) in serum. Conclusion: Vascular and hematopoietic cell damages that occur due to steroid-induced deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) oxidative and lipid peroxidative damages in an ONFH model can be successfully ameliorated by TQ administration. This antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects of TQ may be a promising treatment option for early stage of osteonecrosis.